EU trade policy, types of trade agreements, status of trade negotiations, research of international trade policies. Trade agreements differ according to their content: in the initial phase, the Council authorises the European Commission to negotiate a new trade agreement on behalf of the EU. This requires a “negotiating mandate.” With the appropriate authorization, the Commission adopts negotiating guidelines that include the objectives, scope and possible timelines of the negotiations. The EU manages trade relations with third countries in the form of trade agreements. They aim to create better business opportunities and overcome the obstacles associated with them. According to the European Commission, the MIC would replace the bilateral investment justice systems that participate in EU trade and investment agreements. EU trade policy is also used as an instrument to promote European principles and values, ranging from democracy and human rights to environmental and social rights. One study showed that eu trade agreements implemented during the 1993-2013 period “reduced quality-adjusted prices by almost 7%.” [83] Among the ongoing trade negotiations between the EU and third countries, the European Union negotiates free trade agreements on behalf of all its Member States, with Member States granting the EU “exclusive jurisdiction” to conclude trade agreements. Nevertheless, the governments of the Member States control every step of the process (through the Council of the European Union, whose members are the national ministers of each national government). The European Commission reports annually on the implementation of its main trade agreements in the previous calendar year. Although the WTO is generally referred to as a “free trade institution,” it sometimes allows tariffs and, in limited circumstances, other forms of protection. In practical terms, it promotes a system of rules for open and fair competition.

In some circumstances, trade negotiations with a trading partner have been concluded, but have not yet been signed or ratified. This means that, although the negotiations are over, no part of the agreement is yet in force. The fourth EU Implementation Report (other languages), published in November 2020 and preceded by the preface by DG Commerce Director-General Sabine Weyand (other languages), provides an overview of the results achieved in 2019 and the remarkable work for the EU`s 36 main preferential trade agreements. The accompanying staff working document provides detailed information in accordance with the trade agreement and trading partners. The EU has trade agreements with these countries/regions, but both sides are now negotiating an update. The European Union has free trade agreements [1] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries around the world and negotiates with many other countries. [2] Trade agreements requirements for EU trade agreements, types of agreements, details of current trade agreements. Trade agreements are generally very complex because they are legal texts covering a wide range of activities, from agriculture to intellectual property.